Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidea) in coffee systems, Villanueva , Popayán Cauca
Diana Quintero Muñoz, Diana Marcela Quintero , Yamid Arley Mera , María Cristina Gallego Ropero
Universidad del Cauca, Colombia; Universidad del Cauca, Colombia ; Universidad del Cauca, Colombia ; Universidad del Cauca, Colombia
Coffee has been reported one of the most sensitive to climate changes with forecasts, by the year 2030 the decreasing áreas suitable for production, and new “pests” and diseases. The interactions that arise between different organisms and crops, such as plants, hemiptera and ants, can be affected by abiotic factors such as soil nutrients or moisture availability. Some species of the order Hemiptera, are characterized by living and feeding on plants, being able to be largely protected, and / or predated by ants, managing to increase or decrease their populations, and in many cases, cause serious direct and indirect damages in different crops. like coffee. In order to characterize the interactions between ants and scale insects in coffee crops under shade and free exposure, 4 coffee farms were selected in La Rejoya, Popayán-Cauca: two coffee plantations with diversified tree shade and two coffee plantations in monoculture to free exhibition. In each coffee bushes, ants and scales were collected manually for 8 minutes, searching equitably for the apical, middle and basal parts. The type of association observed was recorded, every 15 days for 5 months. A 68% of commensalist-type associations were found, as opposed to a mutual-type 32%, this association being more frequent in the basal part of the coffee plant, while the commensalist-type association predominated in the middle part of the plant. Some species of ant found were Linepithema neotropicum, Pheidole rodoszkowskii, Wasmannia auropunctata and Solenopsis geminata; also some scale insects such as Coccus viridis and Saissetia coffeae.